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| Volapük |
Logo do movimento Volapük (2ª fase)
|Pronúncia|| /ˈvɒləpʊk/ |
|Criado por||Johann Martin Schleyer|
|Data de criação||1879–1880|
|Objetivo|| Língua auxiliar internacional |
sobretudo na Europa
|Tipo de criação|| A posteriori |
Baseado no Inglês, Alemão e Francês.
|Falado por||20 (2000)|
Volapük é uma língua auxiliar, criado em 1879-1880 por Johann Martin Schleyer, um padre católico romano de Baden, Alemanha. Schleyer pensava que Deus tinha lhe dito em um sonho para criar uma língua internacional. As convenções oficiais de Volapük ocorreram em 1884, em Friedrichshafen, 1887, em Munique e 1889, em Paris. As duas primeiras usaram o alemão e a última usou apenas Volapük. Estima-se que, em 1889, houvesse 283 clubes da língua, 25 periódicos em ou sobre Volapük e 316 livros em 25 línguas; naquele tempo o idioma chegou a quase um milhão de adeptos. Volapuk sofreu um significativo declínio no final do século 19 e no início do século 20 com o crescimento do Esperanto e surgimento do Ido e Interlíngua.
Ortografia e PronunciaçãoEditar
Note: ä, ö, and ü do not have alternative forms such as the ae, oe, and ue of German.
There are no diphthongs; each vowel letter is pronounced separately.
Special consonantal lettersEditar
The author Alfred A. Post mentions in his Comprehensive Volapük Grammar some additional letters created by Schleyer:
- And the following letters are constructed by the inventor to designate sounds which occasionally occur –
Polysyllabic words are always stressed on the final vowel; for example, neai "never" is pronounced Predefinição:IPA. (However, the question clitic "-li" does not affect the stress of the word it attaches to.) Where there is secondary stress, as is found in the compounding of several roots together, it is found on the final syllable between the roots.
Letter r Editar
The letter r was avoided in Schleyer's original Volapük, on the principle that it would be difficult for Chinese speakers to pronounce, and in the adoption of foreign roots r was generally changed to l. For example, English rose becomes lol. However, other uncommon phonemes, such as ö Predefinição:IPA and ü Predefinição:IPA, were not avoided, and Arie de Jong added Predefinição:IPA in his 1929 revision of the language. Modern Volapük has minimal l-r pairs such as rel "religion" versus lel "iron".
Schleyer adapted the vocabulary mostly from English, with a smattering of German and French. Some words remain readily recognizable for a speaker of one of the source languages, but many others are modified beyond easy recognition. For instance, vol and pük are derived from the English words world and speak. Although unimportant linguistically, and regardless of the simplicity and consistency of the stress rule, these deformations were greatly mocked by the language's detractors. It seems to have been Schleyer's intention, however, to alter its loan words in such a way that they would be hard to recognise, thus losing their ties to the languages (and, by extension, nations) they came from. Conversely, Esperanto and Interlingua are commonly criticized as being much easier to learn for Europeans than for those with non-European native languages.
The grammar is roughly based on that of Indo-European languages but with a regularized agglutinative character: grammatical features are indicated by putting together unchanging elements, rather than shifting, multi-meaning inflections.
The following is the declension of the Volapük word vol, "world":
|Nominative||vol (world)||vols (worlds)|
|Genitive||vola (of the world)||volas (of the worlds)|
|Dative||vole (to the world)||voles (to the worlds)|
|Accusative||voli (world)||volis (worlds)|
As in German, the Volapük noun has four cases: nominative, genitive, dative and accusative. In compound words, the first part of the compound is usually separated from the second by the genitive termination -a, e.g., Vola-pük, "of-world language". However, the other case endings (-e dative, -i accusative) are sometimes used, or the roots may be agglutinated in the nominative, with no separating vowel.
Adjectives, formed by the suffix -ik, normally follow the noun they qualify. They do not agree with the noun in number and case in that position, but do if they precede the noun, are separated from it by intervening words, or stand alone. Adverbs are formed by suffixing -o, either to the root or to the adjectival -ik (gudik "good", gudiko "well"); they normally follow the verb or adjective they modify.
The pronouns begin with o-. In the singular, they are ob "I", ol "thou", om "he", of "she", on "it, s/he". They are pluralized with -s: obs "we", ons "they". The possessive may be formed with either the genitive -a or with adjectival -ik: oba or obik "my". Prepositions, conjunctions and interjections are also formed from noun roots by appending appropriate suffixes.
The verb carries a fine degree of detail, with morphemes marking tense, aspect, voice, person, number and (in the third person) the subject's gender. However, many of these categories are optional, and a verb can stand in an unmarked state. A Volapük verb can be conjugated in 1,584 ways (including infinitives and reflexives). However, for simple present, the pronouns are added to the verb stem: binob "I am", binol "you (sg.) are", etc. The passive takes the prefix pa-: palöfons "they are loved".
Schleyer first published a sketch of Volapük in May 1879 in Sionsharfe, a Catholic poetry magazine of which he was editor. This was followed in 1880 by a full-length book in German. Schleyer himself did not write books on Volapük in other languages, but other authors soon did.
André Cherpillod writes of the third Volapük convention,
In August 1889 the third convention was held in Paris. About two hundred people from many countries attended. And, unlike in the first two conventions, people spoke only Volapük. For the first time in the history of mankind, sixteen years before the Boulogne convention, an international convention spoke an international language.
The Dutch cryptographer Auguste Kerckhoffs was for a number of years Director of the Academy of Volapük, and introduced the movement to several countries. However tensions arose between Kerckhoffs and others in the Academy, who wanted reforms made to the language, and Schleyer, who insisted strongly on retaining his proprietary rights. This led to schism, with much of the Academy abandoning Schleyer's Volapük in favor of Idiom Neutral and other new constructed language projects. Another reason for the decline of Volapük may have been the rise of Esperanto. In 1887 the first Esperanto book (Unua Libro) was published. Many Volapük clubs became Esperanto clubs.Predefinição:Citation needed By 1900 there were only 159 members of Volapük clubs recognized by Schleyer.
In the 1920s, Arie de Jong, with the consent of the leaders of the small remnant of Volapük speakers, made a revision of Volapük which was published in 1931 (now called Volapük Nulik "New Volapük" as opposed to the Volapük Rigik 'Original Volapük' of Schleyer). This revision was accepted by the few speakers of the language. De Jong simplified the grammar, eliminating some rarely used verb forms, and eliminated some perceived sexism in the pronouns and gendered verb endings. He also rehabilitated the phoneme Predefinição:IPA and used it to make some morphemes more recognizable. For instance, lömib "rain" became rein.
Volapük enjoyed a brief renewal of popularity in the Netherlands and Germany under de Jong's leadership, but was suppressed (along with other constructed languages) in countries under Nazi rule and never recovered.
Regarding the success of this artificial language, the Spanish scientist Santiago Ramón y Cajal wrote in the first edition of his Tonics of Willingness, in 1898:
"Nowadays, many scientific papers are published in more than six languages. To the likely attempt of restoring Latin or using Esperanto as the universal language of science, wise men have responded by multiplying the number of languages in which scientific works are published. We have to acknowledge that Volapük or Esperanto are practically one more language to be learnt. This result was predictable because neither the essentially popularized and democratic tendencies of modern knowledge, nor the economic views of authors and editors consent in a different way."
However, some years later (1920), in the third edition of the same book, he added the following footnote to the former assertion:
As it was presumable, nowadays -1920-, the brand new Volapük has been forgotten definitively. We forecast the same for Esperanto.
Large Volapük collections are held by the International Esperanto Museum  in Vienna, Austria; the Centre de documentation et d'étude sur la langue internationale in La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland; and the American Philosophical Society in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.Predefinição:Clearleft
In 2000 there were an estimated 20 Volapük speakers in the world. As of July 2012, the Volapük Wikipedia had the 37th highest count of Wikipedia articles with approximately Erro de expressão: Caractere de pontuação "[" não reconhecido articles, though the majority were computer-generated.
There has been a continuous Volapük speaker community since Schleyer's time, with an unbroken succession of Cifals (leaders).
The list of past cifals:
- Johann Martin Schleyer 1879–1912
- Albert Sleumer 1912–1948
- Jakob Sprenger 1948–1950
- Johann Schmidt 1950–1977
- Johann Krüger 1977–1983
- Brian Bishop 1984–present
The Lord's PrayerEditar
|1880 Schleyer Volapük||1930 de Jong Volapük|
|O Fat obas, kel binol in süls,||O Fat obas, kel binol in süls!|
|paisaludomöz nem ola!||Nem olik pasalüdükonöd!|
|Kömomöd monargän ola!||Regän ola kömonöd!|
|Jenomöz vil olik, äs in sül, i su tal!||Vil olik jenonöd, äsä in sül, i su tal!|
|Bodi obsik vädeliki givolös obes adelo!||Givolös obes adelo bodi aldelik obsik!|
|E pardolös obes debis obsik,||E pardolös obes döbotis obsik,|
|äs id obs aipardobs debeles obas.||äsä i obs pardobs utanes, kels edöbons kol obs.|
|E no obis nindukolös in tendadi;||E no blufodolös obis,|
|sod aidalivolös obis de bad.||ab livükolös obis de bad!|
|(Ibä dutons lü ol regän, e nämäd e glor jü ün laidüp.)|
Sample text Editar
Ven lärnoy püki votik, vödastok plösenon fikulis. Mutoy ai dönu sukön vödis nesevädik, e seko nited paperon. In dil donatida, ye, säkäd at pebemaston, bi tradut tefik vöda alik pubon dis vöds Volapükik. Välot reidedas sökon, e pamobos, das vöds Volapükik pareidons laodiko. Gramat e stabavöds ya pedunons in nüdug; too loged viföfik traduta pakomandos ad garanön, das sinif valodik pegeton. Binos prinsip sagatik, kel sagon, das stud nemödik a del binos gudikum, ka stud mödik süpo.
Translation: When one is learning another language, vocabulary presents difficulties. One must continuously search for unknown words, and consequently interest is lost. In the elementary part, however, this problem has been overcome, because the relevant translation of each word appears below the Volapük words. A selection of readings follows, and it is suggested that the Volapük words be read out loud. The grammar and a basic vocabulary have already been done in the introduction; nevertheless, a quick glance at the translation is recommended to ensure that the overall meaning has been acquired. There is a maxim which states that a little study a day is better than a lot of study all at once.
Usage as common noun Editar
The word Volapük is also used to mean "nonsense" and "gibberish" in certain languages, such as Danish in the expression Det er det rene volapyk for mig ("It's pure Volapük to me"). In Esperanto, "Volapukaĵo" is also a slang term for "nonsense", and the expression Tio estas volapukaĵo al mi ("That's a Volapük-ation to me") is sometimes used like the English "it's Greek to me" (that is, "I can't understand this" or "this is nonsense").
- Blueprints for Babel: Volapük – A summary of the grammar of Volapük
- Chapter on Volapük in Otto Jespersen's pro Novial An International Language (1928)
- Article on Volapük from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica
The 1931 revised VolapükEditar
- Summary of "Arie de Jong's Revision of Volapük (1931)" by Ed Robertson. From the 21st edition of the Journal of Planned Languages, 1995.
- A ten-lesson course in modern Volapük
- Ralph Midgley's web-page
- A complete Italian grammar of Schleyer's original Volapük
Handbooks, grammars and dictionariesEditar
- Gramat Volapüka - by Arie de Jong – Volapük Nulik
- Wörterbuch der Weltsprache: Vödabuk Volapüka - by Arie de Jong – Volapük Nulik
- English–Volapük dictionary – Compiled by Ralph Midgley (1998) – Volapük Nulik
- Vocabulary – Volapük Rigik
- A complete Italian grammar of Volapük (1888) by V. Amoretti – Volapük Rigik
- A Hand-book of Volapük, by Andrew Drummond – comic historical novel. ISBN 1-904598-67-6 – Volapük Rigik
Grupos de debateEditar
- Volapükalised – A Volapük group on Yahoo!, general discussion in Volapük about any topic and about Volapük in various other languages
- Volapük Facebook Group
- Blog in Volapük
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